Best Hydroponic Growing Mediums: The Complete Guide

Best Hydroponic Growing Mediums: The Complete Guide

Hydroponic growing mediums make a big difference when it comes to crop yield and the overall success of your plants. There are many options for hydroponic gardeners when it comes to a great growing medium, but making the right selection for your needs requires basic research. In this article, we do the research for you! Keep reading for more details on the most common growing media, what to use based on the type of plant you are growing, and what mediums are best for each hydroponic gardening system.

(Featured Image: Snake Plants In Coco Coir by C. Roberts)

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Best Hydroponic Growing Mediums for Indoor Gardens

Hydroponic gardening is a method of growing plants without soil. Instead, the plants’ roots are suspended in a nutrient-rich solution. This method of gardening offers many benefits, including faster plant growth, higher yields, and less water usage.

One of the most important aspects of hydroponic gardening is choosing the right growing medium. The growing medium provides support for the plants’ roots and helps to distribute the nutrient solution evenly. There are many different types of hydroponic growing mediums available, each with its own advantages and disadvantages.

The Best Hydroponic Growing Mediums For Indoor Gardens

1. Coco Coir

Coco coir (also known as coconut coir) is a sustainable and affordable growing medium made from coconut husks. Coconut fiber is lightweight and has excellent drainage and water retention properties. Coco coir is also relatively easy to work with and can be used in a variety of hydroponic systems.

  • Pros:
    • Sustainable and renewable
    • Good water retention and drainage
    • pH-neutral
    • Suitable for various plants
  • Cons:
    • May require buffering to adjust pH
    • Can compact over time

2. Clay Pellets

Clay pellets, also known as hydroton or clay pebbles, are another popular hydroponic growing medium. They are lightweight and have excellent drainage and aeration properties. Clay pellets are also relatively pH-neutral, making them a good choice for beginners.

  • Pros:
    • Lightweight and inert (chemically inactive)
    • Excellent aeration and drainage
    • Reusable
  • Cons:
    • Expensive compared to some other mediums
    • May require rinsing before use

3. Perlite

Perlite is a volcanic rock that has been expanded to form lightweight, porous granules. It is often used in hydroponic gardening to improve drainage and aeration. Perlite is also pH-neutral and has good water retention properties.

  • Pros:
    • Good water retention
    • Improves aeration
    • Lightweight
  • Cons:
    • Can compact over time
    • pH may need adjustment

4. Oasis Cubes

Oasis cubes are made from a compressed mixture of peat moss and perlite. They are a good choice for hydroponic growers because they are easy to use and provide good support for plant roots. Oasis cubes are also relatively inexpensive and widely available.

  • Pros:
    • Ideal for seedlings and cloning.
    • Excellent water and air retention.
    • Easy to work with.
  • Cons:
    • May break down over time.
    • Limited to use with young plants

5. Rockwool

Rockwool is a mineral wool that is made from molten basalt rock. It is a sterile growing medium that is often used in hydroponic nurseries and commercial greenhouses. Rockwool has excellent water retention and drainage properties, but it can be difficult to work with and can have a high pH.

  • Pros:
    • Good moisture retention and aeration
    • Comes in starter cubes for starting seeds and propagating cuttings
    • pH-neutral
    • Can be used in various hydroponic systems
  • Cons:
    • Can irritate the skin and respiratory system, so precautions are needed during handling
    • Non-biodegradable

6. Growstones

Growstones are a type of hydroponic growing medium made from recycled glass. They are gaining popularity in hydroponic systems due to their unique properties. Here’s a closer look at using growstones as a hydroponic medium:

  • Pros
    • made from sustainable recycled glass
    • excellent aeration
    • pH-neutral
    • easily cleaned and reusable
  • Cons
    • can be more expensive than other hydroponic media
    • dry growstones can be dusty
    • somewhat difficult to find

7. Gravel

Gravel can be used as a hydroponic growing medium in certain hydroponic systems, but it’s not as commonly used as some other media due to specific advantages and limitations. Here’s a closer look at using gravel as a hydroponic medium.

  • Pros:
    • pH-netural and inert (not chemically active)
    • good aeration
    • stable, won’t break down overtime
    • inexpensive
  • Cons:
    • very heavy compared to other medias
    • does not retain water very well
    • does not retain nutrients well

If you decide to use gravel as a hydroponic medium, consider its compatibility with your specific hydroponic system and the needs of your plants. To mitigate some of its limitations, you can mix gravel with other media like perlite or vermiculite to improve water retention and nutrient-holding capacity. Additionally, be prepared for more frequent monitoring and adjustments of your nutrient solution and watering schedule when using gravel as your growing medium.

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How to Choose the Right Hydroponic Growing Medium

When choosing a hydroponic growing medium, there are a few factors to consider:

  • The type of hydroponic system you are using: Some growing mediums are better suited for certain types of hydroponic systems than others. For example, coco coir is a good choice for deep water culture (DWC) systems, while clay pellets are a good choice for nutrient film technique (NFT) systems.

  • The type of plants you are growing: Some growing mediums are better suited for certain types of plants than others. For example, rockwool is a good choice for seedlings and young plants, while clay pellets are a good choice for larger plants.

  • Your budget: Hydroponic growing mediums can range in price from relatively inexpensive to quite expensive. It is important to choose a growing medium that fits your budget and your needs.

Best Hydroponic Growing Medium For Each Hydroponic System

The best hydroponic growing medium for each type of hydroponic system will vary depending on the specific system and the plants being grown. However, some general guidelines can be applied.

Deep Water Culture (DWC)

DWC systems are characterized by their deep nutrient solution reservoirs. Coco coir is a good choice for DWC systems because it has excellent water retention properties and does not float. Other options include perlite and expanded clay pellets.

Nutrient Film Technique (NFT)

NFT systems circulate a thin film of nutrient solution through a channel. Expanded clay pellets are a good choice for NFT systems because they have excellent drainage and aeration properties. Other options include perlite and rockwool.

Ebb and Flow

Ebb and flow systems flood the root zone with nutrient solution for a period of time and then allow it to drain away. Coco coir, expanded clay pellets, and perlite are all good choices for ebb and flow systems.


Aeroponic systems mist the roots of plants with nutrient solution. Rockwool is a good choice for aeroponic systems because it is lightweight and has excellent water retention properties. Other options include perlite and oasis cubes.

Chart showing the best hydroponic growing mediums for each type of hydroponic system.

Growing Mediums To Avoid

There are a few hydroponic growing mediums that you should avoid, especially if you are a beginner. These mediums can be difficult to work with, can have a negative impact on your plants, or may not be suitable for all types of hydroponic systems.

  • Soil: Soil is not a good hydroponic growing medium because it can be too dense and can restrict drainage and aeration. Soil can also contain harmful bacteria and pests.
  • Sand: Sand is another hydroponic growing medium that should be avoided. Sand is too heavy and does not have good drainage or aeration properties.
  • Peat moss: Peat moss can be used in hydroponics, but it is important to note that it has a low pH. This means that it can lower the pH of your nutrient solution, which can make it difficult for your plants to absorb nutrients.
  • Western red cedar: Western red cedar contains a substance called plicatin, which is toxic to plants. For this reason, western red cedar should not be used as a hydroponic growing medium.

In addition to these specific growing mediums, you should also avoid using any growing medium that is not sterile. This is because hydroponic systems are more susceptible to pests and diseases than traditional soil-based gardens.

Tips For Choosing Hydroponic Growing Mediums

  • Choose a growing medium that is lightweight and has good drainage and aeration properties
  • Choose a growing medium that has a neutral pH or that will not significantly alter the pH of your nutrient solution
  • Choose a growing medium that is compatible with the type of hydroponic system you are using
  • Choose a growing medium that is sterile (free from bacteria)
Hydroponic cannabis with large roots nestled in a hydroponic growing medium in a closet grow setup.

Hydroponic Plant With Large Root System

Make A Custom Hydroponic Growing Medium

While there is no such thing as a perfect hydroponic growing medium, you can create your own custom medium that will best meet your growing needs. You can create a custom hydroponic growing medium by mixing various components to suit the specific needs of your plants and hydroponic system. Custom growing mediums allow you to tailor the water retention, aeration, and nutrient-holding capacity to meet the requirements of your crops.

Ingredients For Custom Hydroponic Growing Medium:

  1. Base Material: Start with a base material that provides good aeration and support for plant roots. Common options include:
    • Perlite: Improves aeration and drainage.
    • Vermiculite: Enhances water retention.
    • Coco Coir: Provides a balance of aeration and water retention.
  2. Inert Substrate: Add an inert substrate to improve stability and provide additional support. Examples include clay pellets (Hydroton) or expanded shale.
  3. Organic Matter (Optional): Depending on your preferences, you can incorporate organic matter to introduce some nutrient-holding capacity. Compost, well-rotted manure, or organic potting mix can be considered.
  4. Nutrient-Enhancing Amendments (Optional): To further enhance nutrient retention, you can include materials like peat moss or biochar.
  5. pH Adjusters (Optional): If your base materials are not pH-neutral, include pH adjusters like dolomite lime to stabilize the pH.

Steps To Create A Custom Growing Medium

  1. Select Your Components: Choose the base material and additional components based on your plant’s needs, the hydroponic system you’re using, and your preferences.
  2. Measure and Mix: Measure the components in the desired proportions and mix them thoroughly in a clean container. Ensure an even distribution of materials.
  3. Sterilize (Optional): If you’re using organic matter or recycled materials, consider sterilizing the mixture to eliminate pathogens and pests. You can do this by heating the mixture in an oven or using other sterilization methods.
  4. Adjust pH (if needed): Test the pH of your custom mix. If it’s not within the desired range, add pH adjusters like dolomite lime or sulfur to bring it into the appropriate range for your plants.
  5. Fill Containers or Beds: Fill your hydroponic containers or grow beds with the custom growing medium mixture.
  6. Planting: Plant your crops in the custom medium, ensuring that the root systems are well-supported and can access oxygen, nutrients, and water.
  7. Monitor and Maintain: Regularly monitor the moisture levels, nutrient concentrations, and pH in your hydroponic system. Adjust as needed to provide optimal conditions for your plants.

Creating a custom hydroponic growing medium allows you to fine-tune your system to meet the specific requirements of your plants and growing environment. Experimentation and careful monitoring will help you determine the best custom mix for your hydroponic garden.

Tips for Using Hydroponic Growing Mediums

Using hydroponic growing medium effectively is essential for the success of your hydroponic garden. Here are some tips for using hydroponic growing media:

  1. Properly Prepare the Medium:
    • Follow the manufacturer’s instructions for preparing the medium. Some may need rinsing or soaking before use to remove dust or adjust pH.
  2. Monitor and Adjust pH:
    • Regularly check the pH of your nutrient solution, especially when using inert media like coco coir or clay pellets. Adjust the pH to the appropriate range for your plants to ensure nutrient uptake.
  3. Maintain Consistent Moisture Levels:
    • Ensure that the medium maintains appropriate moisture levels for your plants. Use a moisture meter or simply touch the medium’s surface to gauge when to water.
  4. Avoid Overwatering:
    • While hydroponic media should be moist, avoid waterlogging. Overwatering can lead to root rot and other issues. Ensure proper drainage and use trays or catchment systems to prevent excess water buildup.
  5. Provide Adequate Aeration:
    • In systems like deep water culture (DWC), use air stones or diffusers to oxygenate the nutrient solution. Proper aeration is crucial for healthy root development.
  6. Regularly Inspect for Root Health:
    • Check the roots of your plants for signs of disease or nutrient deficiencies. Healthy white roots are a good sign, while brown or slimy roots indicate problems.
  7. Implement a Nutrient Management Plan:
    • Develop a nutrient solution plan based on the needs of your plants and monitor the EC (electrical conductivity) or TDS (total dissolved solids) levels to ensure proper nutrient concentration.
  8. Implement a Maintenance Schedule:
    • Periodically clean and maintain your hydroponic system and growing media. This includes flushing the system, replacing or sterilizing the medium if necessary, and cleaning any equipment.
  9. Train and Support Plants:
    • Use trellises or support systems to help plants grow vertically. Proper training and support prevent overcrowding and ensure adequate light penetration.
  10. Be Aware of Pest and Disease Management:
    • Hydroponic systems are not immune to pests and diseases. Monitor your plants regularly and take action promptly if you notice any issues.
  11. Keep Records:
    • Maintain a journal or digital record of your hydroponic activities, including pH, nutrient levels, and plant growth progress. This will help you fine-tune your system over time.
  12. Experiment and Learn:
    • Hydroponics often involves some trial and error. Be open to experimenting with different media, nutrients, and techniques to find what works best for your specific setup and plant varieties.
  13. Stay Informed:
    • Keep up-to-date with hydroponic best practices, research, and developments in the field. The more you know, the better you can optimize your system.

Remember that the specific requirements for your hydroponic growing medium may vary depending on the type of plants you are growing and the hydroponic system you are using. Regular observation and adjustment are key to successful hydroponic gardening.

Experiment With Different Hydroponic Growing Mediums

Experimentation is key when it comes to identifying the best growing medium for your hydroponic system. Fortunately, many growing mediums can be relatively inexpensive to buy, so it is worthwhile to purchase several different mediums so you can measure your success with each one. It is a good idea to start the same type of seeds in each type of medium so you can independently determine the effectiveness of each medium.

​Complete Your Hydroponic Setup

​Growing medium is just one component of an overall hydroponic setup. To learn more about our top recommendation on hydroponic systems, air pumps, grow lights, and more, check out these helpful guides:

A vertical hydroponic garden with various growing mediums for an indoor hydroponic setup.